Detailed Plants Dravya Guna Adil Farooq Malik  

Aragvadha | Cassia fistula Linn.|Dravyaguna.

Cassia fistula, commonly known as golden shower,pirging cassia,indian laburnum, or pudding-pipe tree, is a flowering plant which is native to the indian subcontinent and adjacent regions of southeast aisa.

 It is both the national tree and national flower of Thailand.

https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:J.M.Garg J.M.Garg licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.

Botanical name : Cassia fistula Linn.

Family : Caesalpinioideae.

Vernacular Names

Hindi :  Amaltas.

English : Purging cassia.

Bengali : Sondal.

Telugu : Rela.

Kannada : Phalus.

Malayalam : Kanikonna.

Marathi : Bahva.

Gujarati : Garmalo.

Synonyms In Sanskrit Language

Krtamala, Caturangula, Arevata, Drghaphala, Rajavjksa, Vyadhighata, Sampaka, Suvarnab-husana.

Categorization In Classical Texts

Charaka : Kusthaghna, Kandughna, Tiktaskandhia, Virecana.

Sushruta : Aragvadhadi, Syamadi, Slesmasamsamana, Adhobhagahara.

Vagbhatta : Aragvadhadi, Syamadi.

Important Mentions

1) Caraka emphasized its utility in Kustha and described a chapter in its name- “Aragvadhadyam” (C.S.Su.2). Several external applications containing Aragvadha are mentioned in this chapter. leaves are repeatedly used in these conditions but not the fruit pulp.

2) Caraka seperately specified the utility of Aragvadha (fruit pulp) as a laxative/purgative (C.S.Su.25).

3) Sarngdhara quoted it as an example for Sramsana group of drugs.

4) Kaiyadeva identified the properties of leaves, flowers and fruit pulp of Aragvadha and mentioned them seperately.

Different Varieties

According to dhanwantri nigantu and raja nigantu:-

1) Aragvadha.

2) Karnikara.

Botanical Description

It is moderate-sized tree, 3.7-4.8 m. in height. Bark-greenish-grey or brick-red.

Leaves :- paripinnate, 5.1-12.2 cm long.

leaflets :- 8.16, acuminate, ovate-lanceolate.

Flowers :- pendulous racemes, yellow, fragrant. Pods-cylindrical, pendulous, indehiscent, 25-30 cm long and 1.5-3.0 cm diameter.

Seeds :- numerous, small, flat, smooth, yellowish grey, surrounded by black pulp when ripen (Flowers in March-May and fruits in May).

Distribution

Cultivated in many parts of India.

Properties (Guna-Karma)

Rasa – madhur

Guna – Mrdu, Guru, Snigdha

Virya – shita

Vipaka – madhur

Karma – Kapha-pittahara, Sramsana.

Note:- In Dhanvantari Nighantu, Aragvadha is mentioned as an Usna virya dravya.

Indications

Kustha.

Prameha.

Hrdroga.

Amavata.

Gandamala.

Kamala.

Udara.

Udavarta.

Vatarakta.

Sula.

Jvara.

Therapeutic Uses

1) Kustha :- Leaves of Aragvadha are made into paste with Aranala and applied externally (V.S. & V.M.).

(2) Gandamala :- Root bark of Aragvadha is grinded with rice-water and used for Nasya and lepa (V.M.)

(3) Kamala :- Aragvadha (fruit pulp) is given with the juice of sugar-cane or Vidari or Amalaki after fortifying with Trikatu. (A.H.Ci.16).

Part Used

Root bark, leaves, flowers, fruit pulp.

Major Chemical Constituents

Seeds :- Sugars, galactomannan.

Flowers :- Fistulin, leucopelargonidin tetramer, kaempferol.

Pods :- Fistulic acid.

Bark & Heart wood :- Barbaloin, fistucacidin,rheins etc.

Leaves :- Rhein, sennosides A & B.

Dosage

Decoction of root bark 50-100ml; flower paste 5-10g, fruit pulp 5-10g.

Research Work

(1) Fruit pulp has been found to possess significant antipyretic and analgesic properties (Patel et al., 1965).

(2) The sugar-free residue from the fruit pulp has been found to possess cathartic property in mice which was more than that of the total pulp. The minimum effective dose was 12 mg, per mouse weighing 20gm. (Iyengar et al., 1966).

(3) The aqueous extract of the fruit pulp has significant purgative action. In a dose of 250 mg and above, it caused purgative action that reached maximum in 6-9 hrs. and lasted for 24 hrs. The purgative activity was attributed to the anthraquinones present (Lilly kutty, 1968).

(4) The aqueous extract of leaves, stem bark, root bark and fruit pulp in a dose of 1g/100g body weight produced significant anti-inflammatory effect on albino rats. The root bark had maximum activity (Lillykutty, 1968).

(5) The aqueous extract of fruit pulp had very little effect on arterial B.P. of anaesthetized dogs and cats. But it caused an inhibitory effect on the isolated heart of frog and rabbit. At a dose of 80 mg and above, it exhibited stimulant effect on smooth muscle of rabbit duodenum and guineapig ileum in vitro (Lillykutty, 1968).

(6) The leaves, stem bark and fruit pulp were found to have antibacterial activity, the fruit pulp being the most potent in this respect (Lillykutty & Shantha kumari, 1969).

(7) Out of the five glycosoids tested, CFRI (one of the glyco-sides) alone exhibited marked antifungal activity (Venkitaraman and Radhakrishnan, 1972).

(8) Ethanolic extract of root lowered blood sugar level upto 30% after 2 hr in fasting rats (Fitoterapia, 1993).

Important Formulations

1) Aragvadhadi lehya.

2) Aragvadhadi taila.

Sanskrit Verses Mentioning aragvadha.

1) चतुरङ्गलो मृदुविरेचनानाम् । (च.सू.२५)

2) आरग्वधी दीर्घफलो व्याधिहा चतुरङ्गलः आरिवतस्तथा कर्णी कर्णिकारोऽथ रेचनः ॥ आरग्वधो रसे तिक्तो गुहृष्णः कृमिशूलनुत् । कफोदरमेहघ्नः कृच्छ्रगुल्मत्रिदोषजित् ।। (ध.नि.)

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