Detailed Plants Dravya Guna Adil Farooq Malik  

Arjuna|Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.)|Dravyaguna.

Terminalia arjuna is a tree of the genus Terminalia. It is commonly known as arjuna or arjun tree in English. It is a very potent ayurvedic herb which has cardiotonic effect.

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Botanical name : Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.).

Family : Combretaceae.

Vernacular Names

Hindi : Arjun.

Bengali : Arjun.

English : Arjun tree.

Telugu :Tella mad.

Marathi : Sadaru.

Gujrati : Sadado.

Tamil : Belma/Maruda, pattai.

Kannada : Maddi.

Synonyms In Sanskrit Language

Indradaru, Kakubha, Dhavala, Viravrksa, Nadisarja, Partha.

Categorization In Classical Texts

Charaka : Udardaprasamana, Kasayaskandha.

Sushruta : Nyagrodhadi, Salasaradi.

Vagbhatta : Viratarvadi, Nyagrodhadigaṇa, Asanadigaṇa.

Important Mentions

1) Caraka delineated Arjuna in the Udardaprasaman group (C.S.Su. 4).

2) Brhat Trayi have indicated in for Raktapitta, Arsas, Kustha, Prameha, Mutraghata and Vrana but not Hydroga. It is Vrnda, Cakrapani and Sodhala who have high-lighted the role of Arjuna in Hrdroga.

3) Susruta mentioned Arjuna and Kakubha seperately (S.S.Ka. 6/3).

Dalhana in this context opined that Kakubha is a shrub with aromatic root and it may be Artagala. Though Dalhana’s comments confuse us, its identity is usually made with Arjuna or a veriety of Arjuna.

Different Varieties

1) krishna arjun.

2) svaita arjun.

Botanical Description

The arjuna grows to about 20–25 metres tall. trunk often buttresed, smooth grey bark.

Leaves :- subopposite, hard, coriaceous, oblong or elliptic, 10-20 cm long.

Flowers :- yellowish-white, borne in shortly panicled-spikes.

Fruits :- 2.5-5 cm long, obovoid-oblong, with 5-7 equal, hard, coriaceous, thick narrow wings.

Flowers :- in March-June.

fruits :- occur in September-November.

Distribution

Commonly found on the river banks & stream. found almost throughout India.

Properties (Guna-Karma)

Rasa – Kasaya.

Guna – Ruksha, laghu.

Virya – sita.

Vipaka – Katu

Karma – Kapha-pittahara, Udardaprasamana, Hrdya.

Indications

Bhagna.

Sadya Vrana.

Prameha.

Medoroga.

Hrdroga.

Ksaya.

Trsna.

Therapeutic Uses

1) Hrdroga :- Godhuma and Arjuna bark processed in oil, ghee and jaggery is given orally with milk (G.N.).

1) Sukrameha :- Decoction of Arjuna and Candana is beneficial (S.S.Ci. 11)

(2) Prameha :- Decoction of Dhava and Arjuna is beneficial (H.S. 3/28/7).

(3) Kustha :- Khadira, Aragvadha and Arjuna are used for Pana & Abhyanga (C.S.Ci.7).

Part Used

Bark.

Major Chemical Constituents

Terminalia arjuna :- Arachidic stearate, cerasidin, arjunic acid, tannins, arjunone, arjunetin, arjunolone, arjunglucosides I & II; arjunoside I, II & IV; arjunolic acid etc.

Terminalia alata :- Gum, arjunic & arjunolic acids, arjunetin, betulinic and ellagic acids; tannins etc.

Dosage

Powder :- 3-6 g.

Decoction :- 50-100 ml.

Research Work

(3) An experimental study was carried out in 50 dogs by liqating coronary artery and T.arjuna decoction was administered (25 dogs in each group). At the end of the study histopathological study revealed that Arjuna significantly regenerated the cardiac tissues in the infarcted area. After carrying out coronary angiogrphy in dogs treated with Arjuna it was noticed that new coronary vessels developed (Gupta, 1972).

(4) Its bark significantly decreased the elevated cholesterol and increased the HDL choles terol. It was also noted that the prostaglandin levels which were low have been increased and high levels of catecholamines were brought down by the administration of the drug besides relief from symptoms like pain, palpitation etc (Dwivedi, 1986).

(5) Serum lipids were found to be lowered by administration of bark powder (10 mg/kg b.w.) in triton-induced hyperlipaemia. Chronic feeding of this powder (100 mg/kg b.w. p.o.) in animals simultaneously fed with cholesterol (25 mg/kg b.w.) for 30 days, caused lowering in lipids and protein levels of beta-lipoproteins followed by an increase in high density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared with the cholesterol fed groups. T. arjuna al tered lipolytic activities in plasma, liver, heart and adipose tissues of hyperlipaemic rats. The lipid lowering effect of this natural product was found to be mediated through inhi bition of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis, increased faecal bile-acid excretion and en hanced plasma lacithin: cholesterol acyltransferase activity and stimulation of receptor mediated catabolism of low lipoprotein (Khanna et al., 1996).

(6) Diet-induced hyperlipidaemic rabbits were given 50% ethanolic extract of bark. It effec tively reduced the TCL, LDL and TG levels. The extract did not show any averse effect on liver and renal function and heamatological parameters (Ram et al., 1997).

(7) T. arjuna and A. racemosus (1-4 g each/kg b.i.d./day) given for 15 days showed signifi cant antidiabetic activity (Ind. Drugs. 1983 Aug. p. 432-435).

(8) Arjunalone a flavonoid from bark is reported for female contraception (Satyavati, 1983).

(9) The hypotensive and cardiotonic properties are reported (Hippokrates, 1982).

(10) The diuretic, hypotensive and cardiotonic properties are reported (J. Res. Edu. Ind. Med. 1988 Oct-Dec. p.31-36).

(11) Marked reduction in total cholesterol and raise in the HDL are observed (Intl. J. of Crude. Drug Res. 1990, 28 (1): p.43-47),

(12) Bark extract (500 mg b.i.d.) given with other drugs for three months considerably im proved the performance of Treadmill test and exercise tolarance in IHD patients. No side effects are noticed (Ind, Med. Gazette, 1992, 126(2): p56-59).

(13) Arjuna bark (arjunolic acid) exhibited anti-acne activity (Int. Mat. Med. Vol. II p.278).


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